AFNI program: 1dsound
Output of -help
Usage: 1dsound [options] tsfile
Program to create a sound file from a 1D file (column of numbers).
Is this program useful? Probably not, but it can be fun.
===== output filename =====
-prefix ppp = Output filename will be ppp.au
[Sun audio format https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Au_file_format]
+ If you don't use '-prefix', the output is file 'sound.au'.
+ If 'ppp' ends in '.au', this program won't add another '.au.
===== encoding details =====
-16PCM = Output in 16-bit linear PCM encoding (uncompressed)
+ Less quantization noise (audible hiss) :)
+ Takes twice as much disk space for output as 8-bit output :(
+++ This is the default method now!
-8PCM = Output in 8-bit linear PCM encoding
+ There is no good reason to use this option.
-8ulaw = Output in 8-bit mu-law encoding.
+ Provides a little better quality than -8PCM,
but still has audible quantization noise hiss.
-tper X = X seconds of sound per time point in 'tsfile'.
-TR X Allowed range for 'X' is 0.01 to 1.0 (inclusive).
-dt X [default time step is 0.2 s]
You can use '-tper', '-dt', or '-TR', as you like.
===== how the sound timeseries is produced from the data timeseries =====
-FM = Output sound is frequency modulated between 110 and 1760 Hz
from min to max in the input 1D file.
+ Usually 'sounds terrible'.
+ The only reason this is here is that it was the first method
I implemented, and I kept it for the sake of nostalgia.
-notes = Output sound is a sequence of notes, low to high pitch
based on min to max in the input 1D file.
+++ This is the default method of operation.
+ A pentatonic scale is used, which usually 'sounds nice':
-notewave W = Selects the shape of the notes used. 'W' is one of these:
-waveform W sine = pure sine wave (sounds simplistic)
sqsine = square root of sine wave (a little harsh and loud)
square = square wave (a lot harsh and loud)
triangle = triangle wave [the default waveform]
-despike = apply a simple despiking algorithm, to avoid the artifact
of one very large or small value making all the other notes
end up being the same.
===== Notes about notes =====
** At this time, the default production method is '-notes', **
** using the triangle waveform (I like this best). **
** With '-notes', up to 6 columns of the input file will be used **
** to produce a polyphonic sound (in a single channel). **
** (Any columns past the 6th in the input 'tsfile' are ignored.) **
===== hear the sound right away! =====
-play = Plays the sound file after it is written.
On this computer: uses program /usr/bin/mplayer
===>> Playing sound on a remote computer is
annoying, pointless, and likely to get you punched.
The first 2 examples are purely synthetic, using 'data' files created
on the command line. The third example uses a data file that was written
out of an AFNI graph viewer using the 'w' keystroke.
1dsound -prefix A1 '1D: 0 1 2 1 0 1 2 0 1 2'
1deval -num 100 -expr 'sin(x+0.01*x*x)' | 1dsound -tper 0.1 -prefix A2 1D:stdin
1dsound -prefix -tper 0.1 A3 028_044_003.1D
* File can be played with the 'sox' audio package command
play A1.au gain -5
+ Here 'gain -5' turns the volume down :)
+ sox is not provided with AFNI :(
+ To see if sox is on your system, type the command 'which sox'
+ If you have sox, you can add 'reverb 99' at the end of the
'play' command line, and have some extra fun.
+ Many other effects are available with sox 'play',
and they can also be used to produce edited sound files:
+ You can convert the .au file produced from here to other
formats using sox; for example:
sox Bob.au Cox.au BobCox.aiff
combines the 2 .au input files to a 2-channel (stereo)
Apple .aiff output file. See this for more information:
* Creation of the file does not depend on sox, so if you have
another way to play .au files, you can use that.
* Mac OS X: Quicktime (GUI) or afplay (command line) programs.
+ sox can be installed by first installing 'brew'
-- see https://brew.sh/ -- and then using command
'brew install sox'.
* Linux: Getting sox is probably the simplest thing to do.
+ Or install the mplayer package (which also does videos).
+ Another possibility is the aplay program.
* The audio output file is sampled at 16K bytes per second.
For example, a 30 second file will be 960K bytes in size,
at 16 bits per sample.
* The auditory effect varies significantly with the '-tper'
parameter X; '-tper 0.02' is very different than '-tper 0.4'.
--- Quick hack for experimentation and fun - RWCox - Aug 2018 ---
This page auto-generated on
Thu Jul 22 18:57:42 EDT 2021