2.9. Shell script and command line tips

2.9.1. Overview

This page contains a random assortment of useful tips and tricks for shell scripting and command line usage. It assumes that you are comfortable with basic shell syntax and commands, such as with things contained in this Unix tutorial.

We expect this page to be broadly useful across all shell usage. Many of the features presented are available in all shells (such as using seq, awk, grep, etc.). Some features are purely for tcsh shell—that just tends to be the shell we prefer for our own scripting (mainly for readability). But in such cases, there might be equivalent features in bash or zsh to seek out utilize, and learning about them here can be useful. Some sections describe both general shell functionality and tcsh-specific items.

If you have further suggestions or examples, please let us know and we can add to the stash.

Some useful (outside) references for further shell and script learning might be:

The numbers in this section are not purposeful, and they might change over time. In general, we try to accummulate features downwards in the listing: that is, some commands get used together, but we try to assume that if you read the page from top to bottom (as you surely will, right?) then topics should be sensical.

Here we go—le deluge...

2.9.2. Know your shell type

To find out what kind of shell you have, type:

echo $0

in a terminal and it should tell you something like tcsh, csh, bash, zsh, etc. If there is a minus sign at the start of the output, that just means it is your login shell.

For most practical purposes here, tcsh and csh are treated as the same.

If you want to change your shell to be, say, tcsh, then you can just type:

tcsh

... in the terminal. That should switch you over to that format for making/using variables, etc. When you are done, you can type:

exit

... and leave that shell.

2.9.3. Make and run a shell script

To make a tcsh script, open a text file and make the first line look like one of the following:

  • #!/bin/tcsh
    
  • #!/usr/bin/env tcsh
    

... which is called a shebang. There should be no spaces at the start.

After this line, you can put whatever commands you want for your devious purposes. For most considerations, spacing and indentation does not matter within the script (of course, we will mention some exceptions below; for example, when setting a variable one needs spaces around the assignment operator =). However, it is a good idea to indent your code consistently, to help yourself or other people see where loops and conditionals end.

To run or execute the script, you can type:

tcsh SCRIPTNAME

Note that SCRIPTNAME does not need to end with a “.tcsh” extension, but it might help you stay organized and recognize your script. You can add a -e option when you run the script to have it exit the first time a command in it fails:

tcsh -e SCRIPTNAME

You can run a tcsh script in this way from any shell variety (tcsh, zsh, bash, etc.).

Some further, convenient features:

  • Scripts typically dump text in the terminal. You might want to keep a copy or log of that for future reference, debugging or question-asking. You can do this as follows for a script called “SCRIPTNAME” and a logfile called “LOGNAME” (each of which can include path information, etc.):

    • ... from a bash shell, run the script as:

      tcsh SCRIPTNAME 2>&1 | tee LOGNAME
      
    • ... from a tcsh shell, run the script as:

      tcsh SCRIPTNAME |& tee LOGNAME
      

    You can also use this feature within a script, to send the terminal output of a particular program to a text file.

    NB: I can’t stress enough how useful this feature is! You should always, always, always use it. You’re welcome.

  • If you want to keep track of the amount of time something runs, you can start the command line with the Unix program time. Consider either of the following:

    time tcsh SCRIPTNAME
    
    time tcsh SCRIPTNAME |& tee LOGNAME
    

    etc.

2.9.4. Check if a variable exists (tcsh)

To find out if a particular variable has been defined, use ? as $?NAME or ${?NAME}. The shell will return 1 if it has, and 0 if it hasn’t. For example, I suspect this will return 0 on most systems:

echo $?CALL_ME_ISHMAEL

This can be useful to check if variable name is free or not. It can also be useful in scripting in an if condition: if a variable has been defined, then use that value; otherwise, define your own value. For example:

if ( $?CALL_ME_ISHMAEL ) then
    echo "++ CALL_ME_ISHMAEL is already set to: $CALL_ME_ISHMAEL"
else
    set CALL_ME_ISHMAEL = "Moby_01"
    echo "+* CALL_ME_ISHMAEL was undefined; it is now: $CALL_ME_ISHMAEL"
endif

2.9.5. Store array in a variable (tcsh)

Shell variables can hold multiple values, acting as arrays. Consider:

set arr = ( alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota )

To find out the number of elements, use # as follows:

echo "The number of elements in the array is:  ${#arr} (= $#arr)"

You can select the whole array by providing its name:

echo $arr

You can select individual elements, which are indexed starting with 1, up to the number of elements:

echo $arr[1] echo ${arr[3]}

You can select “slices” (or intervals), by placing boundaries in square brackets and separating with a dash -; note both boundaries are included in the interval:

echo ${arr[3-6]}    # out:  gamma delta epsilon zeta

You can leave off the start or stop of the boundary when specifying a slice, and the default first or last element of the array, respectively, will be used:

echo ${arr[-6]}     # out: alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta
echo ${arr[6-]}     # out: zeta eta theta iota
echo ${arr[-]}      # out: alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota

2.9.6. Extract parts of filenames and/or paths (tcsh)

There are common conventions on many operating systems:

  • Directory paths are separated by the / character (at least in Linux and Mac). For example, someone’s home directory might be: /home/alincoln.

  • Filenames use . as a character to two components: the “base name” (or “handle”), which tells about the specific file’s identity; and the “extension”, which tells about its general type (so you/your computer knows what program to use to open it). The extension is placed at the end of the filename, and it is separated from the base by “.”. For example, in the file “assignment_v1.pdf”, the extension is “pdf” and the base is “assignment_v1”. Note that in the file “assignment.v1.pdf”, we can still recognize “pdf” as the extension and “assignment.v1”. Using “.” in the basename is fine: we treat the rightmost “.”-separated part as the extension, and the rest is a basename.

The tcsh has useful modifiers to recognize these features. These are applied as $var:MOD or ${var:MOD}, where MOD can be:

  • e : get file extension

  • r : get path+basename (the “root”), or non-extension part

  • h : get directory of path (the “head”)

  • t : get filename at the end of a path (the “tail”)

So, e and r complement each other, as do h and t. And they can be applied multiple times, as well, as $var:MOD1:MOD2, ${var:MOD1:MOD2:MOD3}, etc. Consider the following examples:

set fff = /home/gtokeefe/Documents/painting.v1.pdf

echo $fff:e
echo $fff:r
echo $fff:h
echo $fff:t

echo $fff:h:t
echo $fff:t:r
echo $fff:e:e
echo $fff:r:r

... will output:

pdf
/home/gtokeefe/Documents/painting.v1
/home/gtokeefe/Documents
painting.v1.pdf

Documents
painting.v1
# an empty string is returned in this case
/home/gtokeefe/Documents/painting

Note that the last one (echo $fff:r:r) might not really be what we want, since the v1 is not really an extension to be removed. The shell can’t read our minds (yet!), so always check the outputs as you go.

2.9.7. Finding paths of programs (shell/tcsh)

Get the full path for a program in your $PATH:

which PROGRAM

You could store this in a variable with:

set var = `which PROGRAM`

This could be useful if you want to get the directory location of a program. Say you want the file containing your AFNI binaries: first by finding the afni program, and then selecting the directory containing it:

set loc_afni = `which afni`
set loc_abin = ${loc_afni:h}
echo ${loc_afni}                # ex out: /home/mgandhi/abin/afni
echo ${loc_abin}                # ex out: /home/mgandhi/abin

2.9.8. Make uniformly spaced numbers (shell/tcsh)

Generate uniformly-spaced numbers with the seq command. This program requires either 1, 2 or 3 arguments after.

Here are examples of each, where we name each argument by how it will be interpreted, and describe its output (though there are no commas in the actual output, just a list of numbers):

seq STOP               # out: 1, 2, 3, ..., STOP
seq START STOP         # out: START, START+1, START+2, ..., STOP
seq START STEP STOP    # out: START, START+1*STEP, START+2*STEP, ..., STOP

Note that the default START is 1, and STOP is included in the interval (unlike, say, typical Python syntax of boundaries). The STEP can be negative.

Examples:

seq 5               # out: 1 2 3 4 5
seq -3 3            # out: -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
seq 4 2 11          # out: 4 6 8 10
seq 11 -3 -2        # out: 11 8 5 2 -1

Outputs can also be stored as an array in a shell variable:

set var = `seq 4 2 11`

It can be useful to make a counter or iterator in a loop:

foreach ii ( `seq 10` )
    echo "++ The counter is:  ${ii}"
end
- show output y/n -

This can also combine usefully with arrays and using # to get the number of elements in it. Consider:

set aaa = ( omega psi chi phi upsilon tau )

foreach ii ( `seq ${#aaa}` )
    echo "++ The [$ii]th value is:  ${aaa[$ii]}"
end
- show output y/n -

2.9.9. String-formatting with printf (shell/tcsh)

The string formatting syntax is quite to that of C programs in print statements (of which Python borrows most for its own str.format() method). You print a string, printf "....", and for each value you want to insert into a string, you a percent symbol and then a descriptor of the type:

  • %d : integer-valued numbers

  • %f : floating point numbers

  • %g : scientific notation (1.23e+15, 4.56e-12, etc.)

  • %G : scientific notation (1.23E+15, 4.56E-12, etc.)

  • %s : strings

After listing your string with spaces created for values, you specify the values to be inserted in the same order. So, consider the following:

printf "%d %f %s" 10 100.1 banana   # out: 10 100.100000 banana

You can control lots of features for each entry. We demonstrate some of these for the “float” type, but relevant features apply to all other types (the vertical line characters have no special meaning; they are just there to show the boundaries around the space created for the inserted value):

printf "|%12f|"    15.1
printf "|%-12f|"   15.1
printf "|%-12.3f|" 15.1
printf "|%12.5d|"  15
- show output y/n -

Note that printf does not put a newline character \n at the end of a line (echo does), so you would have to do that yourself:

printf " %.5d %10.6f %-10s\n" 3 -21 banana

... which outputs:

00003 -21.000000 banana

Consider the following example of generating zeropadded numbers, for a filename:

foreach ii ( `seq 10` )
   set jj    = `printf "%.3d" ${ii}`
   set fname = name_${jj}.txt
   printf "++ The [%3d ]th filename is:  %s\n" ${ii} ${fname}
end
- show output y/n -

2.9.10. Simple math operations (tcsh)

You can do simple math operations like adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing integers with the @ functionality. Consider:

@  aa = 10 + 5
@  bb = 10 - 5
@  cc = 10 * 5
@  dd = 10 / 5
@  ee = 10 / 3

... and echoing the outputs produces, respectively:

15
5
50
2
3

Note how these are only integer operations—note what happens in the case of $ee (no remainder). This can also be useful for incrementing in place:

set vv = 1
@   vv+= 1
echo $vv

... which outputs 2. One can also use -=, *= and /=.

This is useful, for example counting things in a loop:

set count = 0

set letters = ( a b c d e d A s a w e v s d c e w Q a )

foreach ll ( ${letters} )
    if ( "${ll}" == "a" ) then
        @ count+= 1
    endif
end

echo "++ I found ${count} instances of 'a' in this set."

But for more complicated expressions or those involving decimals (floating point numbers), we need something different—see the bc operation, below.

2.9.11. More general math operations, via bc (shell)

Go, Eagles!

This program allows you to write an expression with some pretty general functionality, and have it evaluated as a calculator (that is what the “c” in bc stands for) would. The general syntax we will use this is: echo "MATH EXPRESSION" | bc. By default, the expressions will be considered to be integer-based, but we can specify a “scale” for the number of decimals to output. Consider the following:

echo "10 + 15" | bc
echo "10 / 15" | bc
echo "10. / 15" | bc
echo "scale = 5; 10. / 15" | bc

... which outputs:

25
0
0
.66666

Note how even using decimal points did nothing to change output type (like they might in some programming languages), without the scale being set. Note also how the scale truncates the output, not rounding it: we would expect the last value to be .66667, typically.

You can save the output directly by using the fun backticks:

set output1 = `echo "10. / 15" | bc`
set output2 = `echo "scale = 5; 10. / 15" | bc`

etc.

There are lots of operators that can be included in the expression. You can also use parentheses to control order of operations, following usual math rules. You can use variables inside the expression. Some examples:

set  mm = 18
echo "5 % 3" | bc                       # calc remainder
echo "${mm} % 3" | bc                   # calc remainder
echo "2^5" | bc                         # calc power
echo "scale = 4 ; (3.14^5) + 2" | bc    # calc power
echo "scale = 3 ; sqrt( 35 )" | bc      # calc sq root
- show output y/n -

You can also have comparative expressions, checking for equality ==, inequality !=, greater than >, less than or equal <=, etc. (Though note that checking for strict inequality of floating point numbers is not advised!) Boolean operators can be used, as well: or ||, and &&, not !. If a logical expression evaluates to True, the output is 1; False outputs to 0. Consider these examples:

set val = 100

echo "50 < ${val}" | bc
echo "50 < ${val} && ${val} < 200" | bc
echo "10^2 == ${val}" | bc
echo "! $val % 7 || ! $val % 3" | bc

... outputs:

1               # 50 is less than 100
1               # 50 is less than 100 AND 100 is less than 200
1               # 10-squared is equal to 100
0               # it is not true that: either 7 or 3 is a factor of 100

See the help man bc for more information.

2.9.12. Display blocks of text with cat << EOF ... EOF

You can echo or printf text line by line, which is often good enough. But what if you have a block of text? You could just have several echo commands:

echo "# Program author:  A. Lovelace"
echo "# Program version: G"
echo "# Program date:    Aug 1, 1843"
echo ""
echo ""
echo "# Comment on line 1 ..."
echo ""

This quickly becomes unwieldy. A better way to go is to use the following syntax of the cat program (no silly, feline puns allowed here, unless the are about fatcats):

cat << EOF
# Program author:  A. Lovelace
# Program version: G
# Program date:    Aug 1, 1843


# Comment on line 1 ...

EOF

Three things to note:

  • Spacing and empty line within the blocks are preserved, both at the start of lines and within lines.

  • The EOF is just a commonly used syntax, and you could use another string there. However, don’t use something that might occur at the start of a line in that block of text.

  • This is a case where spacing does matter. The closing string EOF must occur at the start of the line. It cannot be indented. Otherwise, the shell interpreter won’t find the closing of the block.

You can include variables that have been defined outside the block in the block, just by referring to them as usual:

set N = 25

cat << EOF

   echo "The value of N is: ${N}"

EOF

You can redirect the block into a text file, as well. This might be useful if you are creating a script. This is done as follows:

set N = 25

cat << EOF >> SOME_FILE

   echo "The value of N is: ${N}"

EOF

This puts the three lines of text that appear in the block into SOME_FILE; this was done in “append” mode, so the text file just gets longer if text were there previously. Changing >> SOME_FILE to > SOME_FILE puts the operation in “overwrite” mode, instead.

You can even define (or set) new variables inside the block of text. This might occur if you are generating a script file in this way, for example. However, you will have to “escape” the usage of any of these variables within the text block. Consider the following:

set N = 25

cat << EOF > SOME_OTHER_FILE

   echo "The value of N is: ${N}"

   set Nsq = N * N

   The value of Nsq is: \${Nsq}


EOF

After this, SOME_OTHER_FILE looks like the following:

echo "The value of N is: 25"

set Nsq = N * N

The value of Nsq is: ${Nsq}

If we hadn’t put a backslash \ before the usage (not definition) of $Nsq, then we would have gotten an error. Note that we only did this with the variable set inside the block ($Nsq), not the one set outside it ($N), because it was already evaluated before getting to the block.

A final note: if you are going to dump in a shebang, you do not need to escape the exclamation point in it. Thus, the following would be correct:

set N = 25

cat << EOF > SOME_LAST_FILE.tcsh
#!/bin/tcsh

echo "The value of N is: ${N}"

set Nsq = N * N

The value of Nsq is: \${Nsq}

EOF

However, if you were using echo to dump a shebang into a file, you would need to escape the exclamation point:

echo "#!/bin/tcsh"   > BAD_SCRIPT.tcsh

echo "#\!/bin/tcsh"  > GOOD_SCRIPT.tcsh

You can verify this in each case.